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Friday, 18 March 2011 05:00

Which came first - the process or the tool?

Written by  Gary Hamilton, Jeff Hodgkinson, & Gareth Byatt
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There are many aspects involved in successful project and program management: hard work, experience, good teamwork, solid processes and work practices, having good tools with which to work, adopting and displaying the right behaviours - the list could go on. This article focuses on two aspects of project/program management - the processes and the tools we use as program and project managers - and asks: what comes first - the process or the tool?

We do not seek to discuss the merits of different project management tools and techniques, nor will we examine the differences between program and project management; rather, we put forward what we hope are thought-provoking points for you to consider.


The case for processes first, tools second

Processes for project and program management are well documented and readily available today - from professional institutes and organisations such as the Project Management Institute (PMI) and the International Project Management Association (IPMA), to chartered institutes of various project-orientated professions, books and research papers, training organisations, and internal groups (for example, staff working in Program and Project Management Offices) in commercial and non-commercial organisations.

Ensuring a thorough understanding of processes to follow and how to " embody them " in your program or project is crucial to setting your program or project up for success. One key to success is to ensure processes are represented in " the way you do things " , which in this article we will call behaviours and actions. Simply put:

  • " Behaviours " can be thought of as the way people in a project team conduct themselves during the course of program/project.
  • " Actions " can be thought of as the physical activities and interactions the project team undertakes and manages during the course of the program/project.


For example, having a solid understanding of the processes required to create a Project Management Plan (PMP) is fundamental to ensuring the PMP accurately portrays how the team will deliver the project. You must then display the behaviours and take the actions to make it happen. The same could be said of the project estimating and cost control process, the scheduling process, the procurement process, the quality process, the process of controlling risks and all other aspects of program and project management.

But even if you are aware of the processes you should follow and the behaviours and actions required, is this enough to guarantee success, or is there too much room to " manoeuvre " ? Are you hindered if you know the processes to follow but cannot follow them because you do not have the right tools? Do you need a level of " control " that an appropriate tool can provide?

Consider this scenario: you are a Project Manager and have just hired a group of professionals from outside your organisation to run sections of your project. Neither you nor other members of the team have the time to show them " the way things are done around here, " and the specific processes you expect them to follow. In this case, is it enough to ask them to adopt the processes outlined in your procedures guides without providing specific tools that will provide direction?

Whilst a tool can embody good processes, one can argue that it is the behaviours and actions of individuals that make the real difference - regardless of the tool or tools they use. Such behaviours are a result of understanding how to perform certain activities; this cannot be taught by a tool.


The case for tools first, processes second

We all need and expect good tools to help us do our jobs. Whether you are an office-based professional Project Manager who uses a multitude of computer-based tools, or a professional that works in a different environment, you can " t do your best without the right tools - or can you?

Years ago, project management was carried out with tools that were more manually-intensive than those used today - but they were tools nonetheless. In the same way, carpenters relied on manual saws and now use a variety of powered devices to help them get the job done more quickly and with less physical effort, and designers used hand-built models in the absence of specialist computer simulation software.

Project management tools of varying levels of complexity abound today. Some have evolved into entire systems for managing the project itself, whilst others are specific to particular disciplines. Many project management tools have been developed by the organisations that have refined them over the years through the use of feedback and wisdom from user groups. Whether they are scheduling tools, resource management tools, estimating tools, scope management tools or a composition of all these facets and more, they can provide a solid platform ( " railway tracks " , if you like) to control projects.

As an example, consider scheduling. Today's computer-based scheduling tools are very powerful, and allow real-time consolidated views ranging from a single project to a portfolio view of a global scale.

Tools can undoubtedly provide structure to our work. As long as they are task-appropriate and designed to support the process, they help us to become more efficient. And that is one of the keys to using tools - we need to use the right one for the job at hand: it should be a platform to achieve efficiency, and should be used appropriately and properly as a result of training.

Let's revisit our project scenario: in this situation, you are taking on a group of professionals from outside your organisation to run sections of the project, but you do not have the time to show them " the way things are done around here " and the specific processes you expect them to follow. Are you still confident that if you give them the tools they need with no attention given to the processes to follow, they will adhere to the processes in the manner that you anticipate?



We believe that processes and tools need to work in harmony with each other, and that the process should determine how the tool needs to be used. Tools vary in their level of sophistication, and they can definitely help your efficiency and level of consistency and control if (1) they are appropriate for the task at hand, and (2) they are used properly. You cannot use a tool effectively unless you know the processes it guides or instructs you to follow. The need to know " why " and " how " to use a tool is the reason that you first need an understanding of processes (and behaviours). Without the " why " and the " how, " we will not understand the real meaning behind the task at hand.

Program and project managers need to combine process familiarity, embodied through behaviours and actions, with the tools to carry out their work. Understand your processes first, and then use the most appropriate tool available to you to undertake the process.

If you have an opinion on this article, we would really like to hear from you.. Please email us at


About the Authors

Gareth Byatt, Gary Hamilton, and Jeff Hodgkinson are experienced PMO, program and project managers who, starting in February 2010, agreed to collaborate on a three (3) year goal to write 50 articles (pro bono) for publication in any/all PM subject websites, newsletters, and professional magazines / journals. Their Mission is to help proliferate good program and project management practice, add value to the profession, and in earnest hope readers gain benefit from their 60 years of combined experience. To date, they have completed 12 articles and have an output of 1-3 per month. Although each of them are well credentialed, together they have the distinction of being 3 of only 18 worldwide that hold the Project Management Institute"s PMP , PgMP , and PMI-RMP . Along with writing articles, each also champions a role in the overall process:

  •   Gareth manages all additional guest collaboration
  •   Gary manages the article development tracking and team metrics
  •   Jeff manages the article distribution and new readership demographics

Each can be contacted for advice, coaching, collaboration, and speaking individually or as a team at:


Gareth Byatt is Head of the IT Global Program Management Office for Lend Lease Corporation. Gareth has worked in several countries and lives in Sydney, Australia. Gareth has 14+ years of project and program management experience in IT and construction. He can be contacted through LinkedIn.

Gareth holds numerous degrees, certifications, and credentials in program and project management as follows: an MBA from one of the world"s leading education establishments, a 1st-class undergraduate management degree, and the PMP , PgMP , PMI-RMP , & PRINCE2 professional certifications. Gareth is also the APAC Region Director for the PMI"s PMOSIG and chairs several peer networking groups.

He has presented on PMO, program and project management at international conferences in the UK, Australia, & Asia including PMI APAC in 2010.


Gary Hamilton is the Manager of the PMO and Governance within Bank of America"s Learning and Leadership Development Products organization. Gary lives in Bristol, Tennessee, USA and works out of Charlotte, North Carolina. He has 14+ years of project and program management experience in IT, finance, and human resources. Gary has won several internal awards for results achieved from projects and programs he managed as well as being named one of the Business Journal"s Top 40 Professionals in 2007. He can be contacted through LinkedIn.

Gary holds numerous degrees and certifications in IT, management, and project management and they include: an advanced MBA degree in finance, and has the PgMP , PMP , PMI-RMP , ITIL-F, and SSGB professional certifications.

Gary also is a 2009 Presidents" Volunteer Award recipient for his charitable work with local fire services and professional groups.


2010-PMI_AwardMedallion.ashxJeff Hodgkinson is a 30+ year veteran of Intel Corporation, where he continues on a progressive career as a program/project manager. Jeff received the 2010 PMI Distinguished Contribution Award for his support of the Project Management profession from the Project Management Institute. Jeff was also the 2nd place finalist for the 2009 Kerzner International Project Manager of the Year Award TM. He lives in Mesa, Arizona, USA and volunteers as the Associate Vice President for Credentials & Certifications for the Phoenix PMI Chapter. Because of his contributions to helping people achieve their goals, he is the third (3rd) most recommended person on LinkedIn, and is in the Top 100 (81st) most networked. Jeff holds numerous certifications and credentials in program and project management, which are as follows: CCS, CDT, CPC‚ CIPM‚ CPPM-Level 10, CDRP, CSQE, IPMA-B , ITIL-F, MPM‚ PME‚ PMOC, PMP , PgMP , PMI-RMP , PMW, and SSGB (Six Sigma Green Belt). He is an expert at program and project management principles and best practices and enjoys sharing his experiences with audiences around the globe.

Read 9968 times Last modified on Sunday, 10 April 2011 16:01
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