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You are here: Home Blogs Displaying items by tag: organizational
Project Management Blog
Thursday, 25 January 2007 21:34

Acquiring the Project Team

Recruiting Team Members - The project manager has to follow the rules of the host organization. The PM must be aware of, and work well with, the levels of authority. If the PM is working within a Functional matrix, then he must be prepared to allow the employee’s functional manager to determine things like availability and the PM must provide feedback to the functional manager regarding performance. The PM has little authority to perform these tasks.

Published in Blogs
Thursday, 25 January 2007 21:32

Staff Management Plan

This is a subsidiary plan to the Project management plan which includes the processes of staff acquisition, time-table of staff acquisition, team member release criteria, staff training requirements, policies for reward and recognition, compliance requirements and safety protocol.

Staffing is generally represented by a Resource Histogram - A resource histogram illustrates the employee’s time and activities accordingly. The host organization’s management may choose to utilize this information to make decisions about other organizational goals that require time and effort from the project contributors. 

Published in Blogs
Thursday, 25 January 2007 21:30

PM Types of Authority

TYPES OF POWER

According to PMI®, the project manager can exert the following types of power:

The Powers of the Project Manager
Power Definition
Expert The project manager is an expert with the goal the project focuses on.
Reward The project manager can reward the project team members.
Coercive The project manager can punish the project team members.
Formal The project manager is formally assigned to the role of the project manager.
Referent The project team knows the project manager. The project manager refers to the person that assigned them to the role of project manager.

 

  • Expert Power - Expert power can only be exercised by individuals who are held in particular esteem because of their special knowledge or skill. The project manager’s ability to use this power derives from reputation, knowledge, and experience.
  • Reward Power - Reward power involves positive reinforcement and the ability to award people something of value in exchange for their cooperation. The project manager’s ability to use this power derives from his or her position in the organizational hierarchy and degree of control over the project.
  • Coercive Power - Coercive power is predicated on fear (for example, subordinate fears being deprived of something for failing to do what the supervisor asks). The ability to use this power derives from the project manager’s control over the project and project personnel.
  • Formal Power - Legitimate power is derived from the person’s formal position within the organization. The project manager’s ability to use this power derives from his or her position in the organizational hierarchy and his or her degree of control over the project, as modified by the organizational climate. Use of this power should be in conjunction with expert and reward power whenever possible.
  • Referent Power - Referent power is based on citing the authority of a more powerful person (for example, one’s supervisor) as the basis for one’s own authority. The project manager’s ability to use this power derives from his or her position in the organizational hierarchy.

 

 

Published in Blogs
Thursday, 25 January 2007 21:29

Organizational Set Up

ORGANIZATIONAL SETUP


Functional
This traditional structure groups people by specialization (for example, marketing, contracting, accounting, and so on). The project manager has no formal authority over project resources and must rely on the informal power structure and his or her own interpersonal skills to obtain resource commitments from functional managers. Conflicts tend to develop over the relative priorities of various projects competing for limited resources.

Weak Matrix
The matrix organization maintains vertical functional lines of authority while establishing a relatively permanent horizontal structure containing the managers for various projects. The project managers interact with all functional units supporting their projects. In a weak matrix, the balance of power leans toward the functional manager rather than the project manager. That is, workers’ administrative relationships, physical proximity, and relative time expenditures favor the functional manager.


Strong Matrix
The strong matrix is the same as the weak matrix except that the balance of power favors the project manager rather than the functional manager. The project manager has medium to high formal authority.

Projectized
In a projectized organization, a separate, vertical structure is established for each project.  Personnel are assigned to particular projects on a full-time basis. The project manager has total authority over the project, subject only to the time, cost, and performance constraints specified in the project targets.

These are the functional organizations; project expeditor, which is little more than a functionary who helps support the concept of project management but not really the practice; the project coordinator is a step up from that. Then a weak matrix is where you actually have the project manager getting resources from the functional organizations; a strong matrix is where the balance of power is shifted to the project manager. The way you tell whether or not that balance of power has shifted is where the money and the reporting flow from. If all money and reports are generated by the project and are respected as being from the project, then it is a strong matrix. If the functional organizations are seen as generating revenue for the organization rather than the project organizations, then it is a weak matrix. And finally, PMI’s ideal structure: the projectized organization, a place where the project has its own reporting structure within the organization.

 

PM Level of Authority Matrix

PM Level of Authority Matrix
  PM's Authority Budget control Resource Control PM’s role / Time
Functional Little or None  Functional Manager  Little or none   Part time
Weak Matrix Limited Functional Manager  Limited   Part time
Balanced Matrix Low  Mixed  Low  Full time
Strong Matrix Moderate  Project Manager Moderate  Full time
Projectized High  Project Manager  High  Full time

 

 

Published in Blogs
Thursday, 25 January 2007 21:27

Organization charts

An Organizational Chart represents the structure of an organization in terms of rank. The chart usually shows the managers and sub-workers who make up an organization. The chart also shows relationships between staff in the organization, which can be:

Published in Blogs
Thursday, 25 January 2007 21:20

Project Human Resources

The Project Human Resource Management questions on the PMP® certification exam focus heavily on organizational structures, roles and responsibilities of the project manager, team building, and conflict resolution. The Project Human Resource Management processes include the following:

Published in Blogs
Thursday, 25 January 2007 20:39

Project Cost

What is a Project Cost? Each resource in the project must be accounted for and assigned to a cost category. Categories include the following:

  • Labor costs
  • Material costs
  • Travel costs
  • Supplies
  • Hardware costs
  • Software costs
  • Special categories (inflation, cost reserve, and so on)

 

Published in Blogs
Thursday, 25 January 2007 18:25

Creating a Work Breakdown Structure

A WBS identifies all the tasks required to complete the project. The focus of the WBS can be either Product (deliverable) or Project oriented, or both. WBS elements are usually numbered, and the numbering system may be arranged in various manners. If a WBS is extensive and if the category content is not obvious to the project team members, it may be useful to write a WBS Dictionary. This describes what is in each WBS element. It may also say what is not in an element. The primary purpose of the WBS is to develop or create small manageable chunks of work called work packages.

Published in Blogs
Thursday, 25 January 2007 15:18

Organizational Structure

Projects, of course, are not operated in a vacuum. They are parts, or subsystems, of much bigger organizations with much larger goals. Each project has or uses elements such as processes, participants, policies, procedures, and requirements, some of which are dependent upon and interact with related elements in the larger business system. By taking a systematic approach, the project manager can see how all the elements interact, and assess the impact on the individual project. Project managers must recognize the role of the project as a component within an organization. The role of the project, as a component, is to support the business model of the organization as a whole-not to necessarily replace it. Organizations are categorized into one of five models:


Functional
This traditional structure groups people by specialization (for example, marketing, contracting, accounting, and so on). The project manager has no formal authority over project resources and must rely on the informal power structure and his or her own interpersonal skills to obtain resource commitments from functional managers. Conflicts tend to develop over the relative priorities of various projects competing for limited resources.

Weak Matrix
The matrix organization maintains vertical functional lines of authority while establishing a relatively permanent horizontal structure containing the managers for various projects. The project managers interact with all functional units supporting their projects. In a weak matrix, the balance of power leans toward the functional manager rather than the project manager. That is, workers’ administrative relationships, physical proximity, and relative time expenditures favor the functional manager.

Balanced Matrix
A balanced matrix structure has many of the same attributes as a weak matrix, but the project manager has more time and power regarding the project. A balanced matrix still has time accountability issues for all the project team members since their functional managers will want reports on their time within the project. In a balanced matrix the project manager has a full-time role as a project manager with a reasonable level of authority and has a primarily part-time project team

Strong Matrix
The strong matrix is the same as the weak matrix except that the balance of power favors the project manager rather than the functional manager. The project manager has medium to high formal authority.

Projectized
In a projectized organization, a separate, vertical structure is established for each project.  Personnel are assigned to particular projects on a full-time basis. The project manager has total authority over the project, subject only to the time, cost, and performance constraints specified in the project targets.

These are the functional organizations; project expeditor, which is little more than a functionary who helps support the concept of project management but not really the practice; the project coordinator is a step up from that. Then a weak matrix is where you actually have the project manager getting resources from the functional organizations; a strong matrix is where the balance of power is shifted to the project manager. The way you tell whether or not that balance of power has shifted is where the money and the reporting come from. If all money and reports are generated by the project and are respected as being from the project, then it is a strong matrix. If the functional organizations are seen as generating revenue for the organization rather than the project organizations, then it is a weak matrix. And finally, PMI’s ideal structure: the projectized organization, a place where the project has its own reporting structure within the organization.


Published in Blogs
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